Last year marked a revolution in back-end design. The major force behind this change was not just a need for better functionality but for a better process in Web development. In an industry survey from 1999, Web startups found that 80 percent of their budget was typically spent on development costs. These companies also observed that the best sites redesign every two months. The enormous development costs got people’s attention. Complex, transaction-heavy sites were demanding better processes. The old one-tier sites with static HTML or just CGI were fading away, and even the newer, two-tier systems like flat ASP or Cold Fusion were becoming impossible to keep clean and updareable.